Here are three basic types of runtime errors in PHP:

1. Notices: These are trivial, non-critical errors that PHP encounters while executing a script - for example, accessing a variable that has not yet been defined. By default, such errors are not displayed to the user at all - although you can change this default behavior.

2. Warnings: These are more serious errors - for example, attempting to include() a file which does not exist. By default, these errors are displayed to the user, but they do not result in script termination.

3. Fatal errors: These are critical errors - for example, instantiating an object of a non-existent class, or calling a non-existent function. These errors cause the immediate termination of the script, and PHP's default behavior is to display them to the user when they take place.

Internally, these variations are represented by twelve different error types

What’s the special meaning of __sleep and __wakeup?

__sleep returns the array of all the variables than need to be saved, while __wakeup retrieves them.

How can we submit a form without a submit button?

If you don't want to use the Submit button to submit a form, you can use normal hyper links to submit a form. But you need to use some JavaScript code in the URL of the link. For example:

Submit Me

Why doesn’t the following code print the newline properly?

Because inside the single quotes the \n character is not interpreted as newline, just as a sequence of two characters - \ and n.

Would you initialize your strings with single quotes or double quotes?

Since the data inside the single-quoted string is not parsed for variable substitution, it’s always a better idea speed-wise to initialize a string with single quotes, unless you specifically need variable substitution.

How can we extract string 'abc.com ' from a string http://info@abc.com using regular expression of php?

We can use the preg_match() function with "/.*@(.*)$/" as

the regular expression pattern. For example:


echo $data[1];

What is the difference between the functions unlink and unset?

unlink() is a function for file system handling. It will simply delete the file in context.

unset() is a function for variable management. It will make a variable undefined.

How come the code works, but doesn’t for two-dimensional array of mine?

Any time you have an array with more than one dimension, complex parsing syntax is required. print "Contents: {$arr[1][2]}" would’ve worked.

How can we register the variables into a session?


$_SESSION['var'] = 'value';

What is the difference between characters \023 and \x23?

The first one is octal 23, the second is hex 23.

With a heredoc syntax, do I get variable substitution inside the heredoc contents?


How can we submit form without a submit button?

We can use a simple JavaScript code linked to an event trigger of any form field. In the JavaScript code, we can call the document.form.submit() function to submit the form. For example:

How can we create a database using PHP and mysql?

We can create MySQL database with the use of mysql_create_db($databaseName) to create a database.

How many ways we can retrieve the date in result set of mysql using php?

As individual objects so single record or as a set or arrays.

Can we use include ("abc.php") two times in a php page "makeit.php"?


For printing out strings, there are echo, print and printf. Explain the differences.

echo is the most primitive of them, and just outputs the contents following the construct to the screen. print is also a construct (so parentheses are optional when calling it), but it returns TRUE on successful output and FALSE if it was unable to print out the string. However, you can pass multiple parameters to echo, like:

and it will output the string "Welcome to fyicenter!" print does not take multiple parameters. It is also generally argued that echo is faster, but usually the speed advantage is negligible, and might not be there for future versions of PHP. printf is a function, not a construct, and allows such advantages as formatted output, but it’s the slowest way to print out data out of echo, print and printf.

I am writing an application in PHP that outputs a printable version of driving directions. It contains some long sentences, and I am a neat freak, and would like to make sure that no line exceeds 50 characters. How do I accomplish that with PHP?

On large strings that need to be formatted according to some length specifications, use wordwrap() or chunk_split().

What’s the output of the ucwords function in this example?

print $formatted;
ucwords() makes every first letter of every word capital, but it does not lower-case anything else. To avoid this, and get a properly formatted string, it’s worth using strtolower() first.

What’s the difference between htmlentities() and htmlspecialchars()?

htmlspecialchars only takes care of <, >, single quote ‘, double quote " and ampersand. htmlentities translates all occurrences of character sequences that have different meaning in HTML.

How can we extract string "abc.com" from a string "mailto:info@abc.com?subject=Feedback" using regular expression of PHP?

$text = "mailto:info@abc.com?subject=Feedback";
preg_match('|.*@([^?]*)|', $text, $output);
echo $output[1];

Note that the second index of $output, $output[1], gives the match, not the first one, $output[0].

So if md5() generates the most secure hash, why would you ever use the less secure crc32() and sha1()?

Crypto usage in PHP is simple, but that doesn’t mean it’s free. First off, depending on the data that you’re encrypting, you might have reasons to store a 32-bit value in the database instead of the 160-bit value to save on space. Second, the more secure the crypto is, the longer is the computation time to deliver the hash value. A high volume site might be significantly slowed down, if frequent md5() generation is required.

How can we destroy the session, how can we unset the variable of a session?

session_unregister() - Unregister a global variable from the current session
session_unset() - Free all session variables

What are the different functions in sorting an array?

Sorting functions in PHP:

How can we know the count/number of elements of an array?

2 ways:
a) sizeof($array) - This function is an alias of count()
b) count($urarray) - This function returns the number of elements in an array.
Interestingly if you just pass a simple var instead of an array, count() will return 1.

How many ways we can pass the variable through the navigation between the pages?

At least 3 ways:

1. Put the variable into session in the first page, and get it back from session in the next page.
2. Put the variable into cookie in the first page, and get it back from the cookie in the next page.
3. Put the variable into a hidden form field, and get it back from the form in the next page.

What is the maximum length of a table name, a database name, or a field name in MySQL?

Database name: 64 characters
Table name: 64 characters
Column name: 64 characters


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